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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

THE UNITED STATES.
447
quarter of this open-hearth, steel is made on an acid hearth, the remainder on dolomite or magnesite linings. The use of the basic furnace is spreading both in small and large plants, but few new Bessemer plants are being erected. No fuel is imported for the making of iron and steel, but a considerable quantity of ore is brought from Cuba to points on the Atlantic seaboard, as shown by Table XXII-E.
TABLE XXII-E. Iron Ore Imported into the United States.
.Imported from	1896	1898	1900	1903
Cuba ...................... . .................	380,551	165,623	431,265	613,585
Spain ..............................	121,132	13,335	253,694	94,720
French. Africa .............................	79,661		20,000	7,830
Italy ........................................	29,882		18,951	
Greece ..................................	33,760	7,200	23,350	86,730
Newfoundland and Labrador ............ United Kingdom . . ......................	20,800 8,528	...... 683""	140,535 397	6,843
Colom oia ................. . ................	3,150		3,000	169,681
Quebec Ontario etc ..............			5,588	1,051
Other countries.. . . ........................	5,352	367	1,051	
Total .................................	682,806	187,208	897,831	980,440
				
A map is given in Fig. XXII-A, taken from the U. S. Geological Survey. This shows the coal fields of the United States, the anthracite deposits of eastern Pennsylvania being noted by solid black. The crosses denote important producers of ore, the only ones worthy of note being the Lake Superior deposits, and those of Alabama, Colorado and Cornwall, Pa. The circles indicate the steel-producing centers.
SEC. XXIIb.—Goal:
Anthracite.—Many years ago lump anthracite was commonly used in eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey as the only fuel put into the blast furnace, but this practice has become the exception, and coke from Connellsville has for a long period been carried to furnaces situated in the heart of the hard coal region. Some furnaces do use anthracite alone, and at many plants it is not unusual to use a certain proportion of hard coal, but this hardly warrants 'the classification of many Eastern plants as "anthracite furnaces/'
Hard coal is used in firing boilers, but only the small sizes are available, the larger kinds commanding a higher price for household use. Except in the neighborhood of the mines it is more economical